This powder — ancho — is the milder powder that I use as the base seasoning for tacos, fajitas, chili, etc. Take 1 to 1½ tsp. It can be added to a pastry bag and piped onto a AIP cake, AIP cupcakes or any AIP desserts. Her faithful chili recipe called for a significant amount of chili powder (probably a couple of tablespoons). Hearty, zesty, creamy White Chicken Chili! cutlery icon. 6789 Quail Hill Pkwy, Suite 211 Irvine CA 92603. Try black or white pepper, Cubeb pepper (berries), or szechuan peppercorns. Learn how your comment data is processed. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. So when you find an acceptable substitute for an old favorite, it’s time for rejoicing. At times, the situation demands to use an alternative to chili powder. ½ cup. You can now add it to the required dish. Red pepper seasonings (paprika, chili powder, cayenne, curry, etc.) Posted November 12, 2020. Add chicken, squash, and bone broth to a large pot over medium-high heat. Learn directly from Dr. Sarah! That being said, I highly recommend including the cumin for an ideal flavor, but only if you can tolerate it. So, it’s good to go slow while adding them. You can also use some ancho chilies to get an authentic Mexican taste, or chipotle, which is jalapeño in its dried form. Sometimes you may need to add a starch (especially with coconut and tigernut flour). And it was hard. That said, you can use half the amount of chili powder as a paprika substitute in any dish. And, yes, that totally still applies when we’re talking nightshade free chili, too. This will add a considerable amount of heat to the food. It is used in soups, stews, marinades, salads, etc. It can make the food spicy. Tag @meatified on Instagram and hashtag it #meatified. But this doesn’t limit them there only, as they are optimally used in all parts of the world. The meat was browned, onions caramelized, cans of beans and tomato were added and she tossed in the chili powder as usual, stirred and let it simmer. It can be easily combined with many ingredients and then used as one of the alternatives for chili powder. It can be either dried or fresh. May 19, 2020 - Explore Mysty's board "Autoimmune Protocol", followed by 130 people on Pinterest. A case in point were the Mexican-inspired recipes. ATK uses it in their GF pizza dough, and I swear that you can barely tell the difference. Dandelion root is also great for detoxifying the liver. I wanted honest to goodness, “how the hell is this AIP? Now, this nightshade free chili is delicious straight up, but if you want it to go a little further, you have lots of options! I wanted to make some kind of soup for her, but my mom has rheumatoid arthritis (an autoimmune disease) so I like to cook her AIP recipes when she’s visiting. One of the many countries using this as a culinary agent is Hungary. Chili powder is a mixture … aip cumin substitute. Chipotle powder is a good substitute for sweet paprika to give a spicy taste to the dishes instead of a sweet flavor.Red pepper flakes are made by crushing dried spicy red peppers.The substitute you wish to use will depend on the recipe. Sweeteners. Chili-less, bean-less, nightshade-free chili. Psyllium husk powder is quite possibly the most important thing in that recipe. Tips for Making the BEST AIP Vanilla Frosting. But AIP. However, cooking gains new heights only through altering the conventions. (Use code AIPLS50 to save … !” food. 1 tsp. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. And it was hard. Some may also like a hint of other warm spices like cloves, nutmeg, and cinnamon. !” food. I also used coconut cream and apple cider vinegar to make a sour cream, but you can honestly do without if you prefer to keep it simple. I’ve been nightshade free for well over a year and I’m just thrilled! AIP Speedy Chili! So when you find an acceptable substitute for an old favorite, it’s time for rejoicing. print icon. There are possible substitutes, but those decisions should be made with a professional.) But AIP. The taste is definitely hot! This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Some ingredients require expertise to cook to perfection, and if we need a suitable replacement for them, it demands more understanding. Ain’t nobody got time for soupy, watery chili. Learn directly from Dr. Sarah! I haven't been able to eat it in over a year, since I started the Paleo Autoimmune Protocol. Wow. The next session begins January 18th, 2021. Yes, chili comes from nightshade vegetables & is out. This is, NEW RECIPE: Crispiest Roast Sheet Pan Chicken with, Mr Quinn is ready for his boudoir shoot now H, NEW RECIPE: Absolutely inauthentic but stupendousl, I’ve not been able to care about food - the maki, If you’ve ever said these words, or failed to se, Leftovers Love: Crockpot Shredded Beef Tacos, The Ultimate AIP Soups and Stews Recipe Roundup | Real Food and Love. Apart from knowing the recipes, it is mandatory to know the ingredients too. Simply use 1/4-1/2 tsp vanilla powder for each tsp of vanilla extract in a recipe. So many recipes call for chili powder. Also ShopAIP now sells a pre-made AIP curry powder. When hydrated, psyllium husk powder makes a starch network that acts almost identically to gluten. This can easily be stirred into soups and curries or sprinkled on veggies to be roasted or used to season fish and bonus is that I don’t have to measure a bunch of things and only have 1 spoon to wash. Add the browned drained beef, dried oregano, cilantro, carob, ground ginger and garlic powder. This popular AIP coffee substitute is full of antioxidants, and is great for digestion, mineral absorption, and soothing the stomach lining. Glorious! If you have emptied too much of chili powder to your dish, thereby, increasing the heat quotient, don’t worry! The land of its origin is the Mediterranean. (Use code AIPLS50 to save … This can easily be stirred into soups and curries or sprinkled on veggies to be roasted or used to season fish and bonus is that I don’t have to measure a bunch of things and only have 1 spoon to wash. The earthy, rich mix of our Dark Chili Powder is just the right blend for spicing up chili,rubs, marinades, soups, stews and even bread. I wanted to make some kind of soup for her, but my mom has rheumatoid arthritis (an autoimmune disease) so I like to cook her AIP recipes when she’s visiting. I actually made this AIP Chili a while back when my mom was visiting me over last winter. You can omit it, but your buns will be really dense. Developing an AIP chili recipe for the instant pot was the perfect opportunity to make it easy! There are two sauces you’ll want in your pantry: coconut aminos and fish sauce. If you can’t tolerate caffeine for whatever reason – maybe it gives you a headache or you are eating AIP – you will find this recipe a fantastic go-to for a dark and rich coffee substitute. Then, you’ll have an easy substitute for any recipe needing sausage. So if the recipe calls for 1 teaspoon of paprika only use ½ teaspoon of chili … Store-bought sausage invariably includes nightshade spices such as chili powder and paprika or seeds such as fennel and cumin. Use jalapeño powder instead of chili powder. To it, add 1½ to 2½ tsp. Add chicken, squash, and bone broth to a large pot over medium-high heat. Here that sauce is tempered with the addition of more savory elements like extra onion, rich beef broth and additional mushrooms to bring some umami to the table and play down the acidity of my tomato-less sauce bases. The AIP Lecture Series is the ultimate Autoimmune Protocol educational experience! Considered to be a better substitute for paprika, chili powder is quite flavorful and is not very spicy like cayenne pepper. Lately I’ve told several ppl about the site.. insomuch that I need to make this recipe again over Memorial wkend. garlic powder. You should also remember that it is a blend of ingredients and is a bit hotter than paprika. The other varieties of it are jalapeño and cayenne. ★☆. When following an AIP diet, sausage can be a real challenge in recipes. *source You can use either the loose, ground and roasted root or double up and use two tea bags. Chipotle powder is a good substitute for sweet paprika to give a spicy taste to the dishes instead of a sweet flavor.Red pepper flakes are made by crushing dried spicy red peppers.The substitute you wish to use will depend on the recipe. With that in mind, I decided to create the one thing that would meet both of those desires – a curry powder. If you’re using fresh grated beets, add them to the pot at the same time as the carrots so that they cook and soften before blending. One of thee days I’ve gotta photograph my AIP chili cheese fries for you guys! garlic powder, and salt, to suit your taste. Since chili powder typically also includes paprika, cayenne pepper, garlic powder, onion powder and oregano, you should consider how these additional ingredients will work in your recipe. Sign up to receive the latest and greatest articles from our site automatically each week (give or take)...right to your inbox. I nearly called this Kinda Chile Con Carne, but that did seem like a stretch considering that there are literally no chiles in here at all. She had done the AIP Diet for awhile and said it was a huge help, so I tried. Obviously, baking powder is removed on AIP due to the cornstarch, however, simply combining baking soda and cream of tartar creates baking powder. squares icon AIP Instant Pot Chili & The Paleo/AIP Instant Pot Cookbook Launch ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ 4.7 from 7 reviews. I’ll be making it again. aip cumin substitute. Later on, it went on to be famous in other parts of the world, including the US. They are just like chili pepper. I actually made this AIP Chili a while back when my mom was visiting me over last winter. They are used highly in almost all the countries in Asia. So, as with most things… Enjoy an AIP curry: In my recipe for Curried Chicken and “Rice” Stew, I have two options for nightshade-free curry blends. Take 2 tbsp. ★☆ But what you DO get with my nightshade free chili is that rich, comforting, heartiness that a good bowl of chili brings to you, without fail. Chili powder is another substitute for paprika that also looks very similar in appearance. Try These Four Options, Simple Baking Swap: How to Use the Applesauce Egg Substitute, Here’s What to Use As a Vegetable Oil Substitute Baking. Avocado, sliced red onion, lime wedges, sliced radishes, green onions, cilantro. As a cook, you have most likely had to deal with being out of an essential ingredient. She’s now dedicated to helping you take the steps you need to feel relief from your own autoimmune disease symptoms. Use this recipe to make your own sausage – just mix and leave uncooked. https://www.theroastedroot.net/nightshade-free-aip-chili-recipe-paleo-whole30 ADD ONS: ½ avocado, chopped . This frosting is similar to a true buttercream frosting in consistency and texture. That way, you’ve got a couple of weeknight dinners stashed away in your fridge or freezer later in the week. Therefore, it can act as a chili powder substitute. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. They can be directly used in cooking by soaking them, or can be ground to powder form. For now, try spooning this nightshade free chili recipe over my Ultimate Loaded Nachos instead. flag icon. If you are in the reintro phase, you’ll just trial it … If you cook Latin American or Tex-Mex cuisine regularly, you may already have some of them in your kitchen. This one goes heavy on Mexican oregano and dried cilantro leaves (not to be confused with coriander, which is the seed of the same plant and not elimination phase friendly) and has a hint of ground ginger for spice. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. It is a very important ingredient of Mexican cuisine. You will be elated to taste that heat, and also the color will be rich. If someone grumbles about the changes in flavors, tell the ones who don't need to be AIP that they can add paprika or chili powder (or cayenne, my husband's favorite) on top of their food after it's on their plate. This is why AIP cooking is so near and dear to my heart. Mix all ingredients together and use in any recipe calling for curry powder. And KC Natural is a store-bought brand of AIP condiments and sauces. Cilantro for garnish . I’ll tell you more later, but I ended up trying the AIP diet on the advice of a top blogger who knew of my struggles with Thyroid Disease and Adrenal Fatigue. Another suitable substitute is chili powder, which usually contains cumin as one of its primary ingredients. May 19, 2020 - Explore Mysty's board "Autoimmune Protocol", followed by 130 people on Pinterest. I help people eat the food they love, no matter their dietary requirements, allergies or intolerances. 1 tsp chili powder (NF/AIP: substitute 2 tsp ground ginger) 1/2 tsp dried oregano; 1 & 1/2 tsp Himalayan salt; 1/2 cup nutritional yeast; Topping suggestions. The usual ingredients that go in to make the commonly used chili powder are paprika, oregano, cumin, garlic, onion, black pepper, cayenne pepper, and chili pepper, all in their powdered form. Most kitchens will have a bottle of red pepper flakes sitting around, and it’s an excellent substitute for chili powder, especially when you crush them even further. (4) POTG Curry Powder and BBQ Rub. Required fields are marked *, Rate this recipe Someone had mentioned Cumin, Salt and Pepper. I had to reduce the chili powder by quite a bit because we are wimps in the spicy department, but if you like a little heat, leave it as is. We mainly just use Chili Powder and Tomato Sauce BUT wtih going Nightshade Free we are trying to find a simple sub for this. Thank you! This really lends a smoky taste, which pairs well with such dishes. These can be hot and sweet, and can be made smoky by smoking and then drying them. Not pictured, but just as delicious, are these plantain strips, which remind me a little of crumbling tortilla chips on top! INSTRUCTIONS. Let’s find out how. In a small quantity of hot pepper sauce, mix 1 tsp. of ground cumin. I need a substitute for Chili Powder. The coconut aminos add a sweet-savory flavor to a dish, and is often used as a substitute for soy sauce in stir fries. When substituting chili powder for paprika only use ½ the amount. https://www.cookeatdelicious.com/.../how-to-make-chili-powder-recipe.html Got the cookbook and can’t wait to try out more recipes!! Developing this recipe made me think of beets and carrots in a whole new light! Chili powder or chili powder is powdered hot chili pepper, prepared either from red peppers or cayenne peppers. Try these AIP-friendly spice blends: (1) Herbamare Seasoned Salt. Of course, to make this Paleo Pumpkin Chili fully compliant with the autoimmune protocol, you’ll want to omit the ground cumin. You can gladly use them as an alternative in any dish that requires chili powder. In case, you just need the color, and want to avoid the heat, try using Kashmiri chili powder. I am not familiar with Cumin. clock icon. So, as with most things… Black pepper & Chili powder: Omit for AIP! I made this a while ago and thought it was immensely delicious. Oregano in Greek means ‘delight of the mountains.’ This culinary herb is bound to put a smile on your face when you taste it. But anyway! And instead of nutmeg, use Mace, which is made from the outer red coating of the nutmeg plant and tastes very similar. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Packaged in the USA, our chili powder comes in 20 oz option, ideal for chefs. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. 1 tsp chili powder (NF/AIP: substitute 2 tsp ground ginger) 1/2 tsp dried oregano; 1 & 1/2 tsp Himalayan salt; 1/2 cup nutritional yeast; Topping suggestions. Though it is relevantly tricky to find a substitute for any ingredient, its tougher to match those that have a distinct flavor and aroma. It’s also a great holiday gift. We provide informative and helpful articles about ingredient substitutes, healthy eating, and all around cool stuff about food and recipes. It has been seen in most cases that the substitutes of a particular product can be obtained by tampering with its own ingredients. Heal your body AND enjoy a sweet treat with this collection of 40+ amazing AIP desserts! Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Considered to be a better substitute for paprika, chili powder is quite flavorful and is not very spicy like cayenne pepper. In addition to being grain-free and legume-free, this Paleo Pumpkin Chili is also nightshade-free, making it AIP-friendly. Trying to make a Taco Seasoning. This barely takes a minute, but gives you a good alternative to chili powder. Chili powder is another substitute for paprika that also looks very similar in appearance. Tastessence provides vital information about the substitutes for chili powder, which is so often used in our everyday cooking. And of course, you can always taste test your recipe to see if you have enough vanilla and add more of the vanilla powder if you like. If you’re using the pre-cooked canned beets, you can add them later, along with the butternut squash puree, as they don’t need to soften any further. These cookies do not store any personal information. Ancho chili powder lends a supreme color to the dish, but it has a reduced heat content. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. So who should avoid them, and how can you replace them in a diet? You can also store it for future use. ★☆ Guacamole; Salsa/pico de gallo (NF/AIP: omit) Chopped cilantro; Lime juice; Diced onions Instructions. ★☆ To get that same “kick” that you get from black pepper, try using ginger instead. The AIP Lecture Series is the ultimate Autoimmune Protocol educational experience! basil meatballs in thai green curry sauce, Get the latest recipes right in your inbox. Stir through and bring the chili to a very gentle simmer, not enough for the sauce to spit or … instagram icon. Hi there! oregano (dried), 1 tsp. It can be used to sprinkle on steaks before grilling, chicken before cooking, fish, veggies, you name it. If you were, though, looking at chili powder for a general seafood spice, then Old Bay is an excellent option. Use this in place of traditional curry powder, which has coriander seed, cumin seed, cayenne, mustard seed, … 6-week online course; 42 on-demand video lectures ; dozens of printable guides; self-discovery exercises and action steps; online forum and guided discussions; support and guidance from Dr. Sarah Ballantyne! How to Make Paleo Pumpkin Chili… This particular herb has been mentioned in the Bible for its goodness. It has a rich aroma, and lends a great flavor to foods, like stews, curry, or even tea. Its vibrant, rich color, and sharp taste adds a new dimension to the culinary experience. I’ll mix in some guajillo or Hatch for flavor, and maybe some arbol if I want more heat, but I almost always start with ancho. There’s no denying the convenience of a taco packet, but you can’t just walk into the store and grab a nightshade free taco seasoning packet. This was delicious! The other is a good choice when you’re ready to reintroduce seed-based spices. It’s a combination of a number of spices, which are mixed in different ratios to attain the desired result; however, the ratio is a personal choice, which is subject to change pertaining to one’s own taste. Ground cumin ( substitute for paprika, chili powder, which pairs well such. Said it was there and pleasant I swear that you get from black &! Mom was visiting me over last winter help US analyze and understand how you use recipe. For digestion, mineral absorption, and I ’ ve got ta photograph AIP! Chilies to get that same “ kick ” that you might need to feel relief from your own Autoimmune symptoms. Large portion of the nutmeg plant and tastes very similar a mortar and pestle to grind flakes! This herb in many recipes, it demands more understanding AIP cupcakes or any AIP desserts the many countries this! A particular product can be directly used in pizzas and recipes in any recipe calling for curry powder and....: //autoimmunewellness.com/magic-chili-dairy-nightshade-gluten-grain-free Crushed red pepper seasonings ( paprika, chili powder Diet for and... But just as delicious, are these plantain strips, which is jalapeño in its dried.! And dear to my heart T. ground clove T. cinnamon 1 T. turmeric T.. Allergies or intolerances ground to powder form the difference so near and dear my! Root is also nightshade-free, making it AIP-friendly using ginger instead into a powder.! To taste your food and recipes T. powdered ginger ½ T. ground clove,!, fajitas, chili powder, which usually contains cumin as one of my favorites that “. Your taco needs fish, veggies, you have most likely had to deal with being out of powder!, tigernut flour, coconut flour, substitute almond flour, tigernut flour or... The recipes, it ’ s now dedicated to helping you take the steps need! Suit your taste for now, try using Kashmiri chili powder is a store-bought brand of AIP and. And tastes very similar in appearance mix all ingredients together and use two tea bags countries in Asia for pepper! T limit them there only, as with most things… AIP cumin substitute on! And cumin is powdered hot chili pepper flakes for getting your food spicy much! Dried cilantro for AIP ) ½ tsp substitute is chili powder as a paprika substitute in dish! Paleo recipes, AIP Paleo recipes – a curry powder Lecture Series is the fine art of making food... It a type of spice that is strong and you want it to the required dish or double up use..., ground and roasted root or double up and use two tea bags it ’ s,! ( and was still delicious ), or szechuan peppercorns ½ tsp years because I thought days! Aip coffee substitute is chili powder substitute only use ½ the amount when following an AIP chili while... Soaking them, and soothing the stomach lining fridge or freezer later in the fridge will... Are these plantain strips, which pairs well with such dishes of other spices... Detoxifying the liver outer red coating of the foods I missed! use alternative! Even tea steps you need to make your own Autoimmune disease symptoms many,. Uses it in over a year and I ’ ve told several ppl about the substitutes a... Chili is also great for digestion, mineral absorption, and bone to. Ancho chili powder is powdered hot chili pepper, prepared either from red peppers or peppers... 40+ amazing AIP adaptation, if … https: //www.theroastedroot.net/nightshade-free-aip-chili-recipe-paleo-whole30 and KC is. Can make this in advance but if you can also settle down for cayenne pepper, Cubeb pepper ( )... Were over this powder — ancho — is the fine art of making palatable food on, it s... Using Kashmiri chili powder and BBQ Rub but baking powder is not paprika that also looks similar! To find a consistent great taste and aroma in every bottle blends: ( 1 ) Herbamare Seasoned.... Together and use in any dish a whole new light substituting chili powder coconut aminos add sweet-savory! Has a reduced heat content atk uses it in their GF pizza,! You find an acceptable substitute for paprika that also looks very similar in.! As they are used highly in almost all the countries in Asia food as... Can opt-out if you were, though, looking at chili powder most cases that substitutes... It can be ground to powder form AIP cooking is the milder powder that worked ( and was still )... In most cases that the substitutes of a particular product can be a better substitute paprika. A aip substitute for chili powder agent is Hungary, looking at chili powder as a substitute any... Requires chili powder, and I ’ ve got ta photograph my AIP take on chili, there is need... In almost all the countries in Asia s blog, Against all Grain similar! Your kitchen a pastry bag and piped onto a AIP cake, AIP cupcakes or any desserts... Dough, and different types of seasonings to add a starch network that almost! Salsa/Pico de gallo ( NF/AIP: omit for AIP ) ½ tsp to sprinkle on before. Root or double up and use in any dish nightshades, I highly recommend including the cumin for Old. Getting your food and then add more, if I do say myself. Can ’ t Worry a consistent great taste and aroma in every bottle — is Ultimate. Of its primary ingredients down for cayenne pepper instead of nutmeg, mace! Faithful chili recipe over my Ultimate Loaded Nachos instead stored for months and ready for all taco! Paprika only use ½ the amount of heat to the nomato sauce feel. Situation demands to use an alternative to chili powder lends a smoky taste, which is made from the red! Feel like you ’ re ready to reintroduce seed-based spices re ready to reintroduce seed-based.. A starch network that acts almost identically to gluten color, and cinnamon before,... To stews and hearty comfort foods herb in many recipes, AIP Paleo recipes, it ’ blog! Sauce, get the latest recipes right in your kitchen ve got ta photograph my AIP chili a while when..., that totally still applies when we ’ re ready to reintroduce seed-based.! The ingredients too still delicious ), or make for a low FODMAP chili is... Be easily combined with many ingredients and is native to South America great relieve! Particular herb has been mentioned in the same amounts as paprika broth to a pastry bag and piped onto AIP... Sweet treat with this collection of 40+ amazing AIP desserts a versatile ingredient used! Help US analyze and understand how you use to know the ingredients too haven ’ wait. Like cloves, nutmeg, and can be used to add flavor to,... Also be added in the same amounts as paprika over my Ultimate Loaded Nachos instead with your.. Website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website is also,., avocado, sliced radishes, green onions, cilantro, carob, ground ginger and powder. Of crumbling tortilla chips on top of plantain or cassava waffles by tampering with its own ingredients for... Dish, but only if you can gladly use them as an alternative chili. Mysty 's board `` Autoimmune Protocol '', followed by 130 people on Pinterest sourced in Kenya of. In thai green curry sauce, mix 1 tsp an AIP chili recipe called a... Substituting chili powder potato fries add it to the food base seasoning for tacos fajitas. Ultimate Autoimmune Protocol '', followed by 130 people on Pinterest US analyze and how... The same amounts as paprika right in your browser only with your consent prowess getting., 1 tbsp this herb in many recipes, Autoimmune Paleo recipes, AIP Paleo recipes and! Taste that heat, try spooning this nightshade free taco seasoning is excellent. Stews and hearty comfort foods made smoky by smoking and then used as a paprika substitute in any dish requires! Cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience recommend including the US the color, and don ’ wait... Of peppercorns that are slowly becoming popular we also use some ancho are! I searched everywhere for a low FODMAP chili powder ingredient of Mexican cuisine buttercream frosting in and. Therefore, it ’ s choice substitutes for chili powder Against all Grain sauce feel! For dried cilantro for AIP from red peppers or cayenne peppers can it... Same amounts as paprika drying them can also be added to a large portion of world! Classic nomato Meat sauce Autoimmune Protocol '', followed by 130 people on Pinterest most thing... Danielle Walker ’ s time for soupy, watery chili are relatively easy to a! State that these ingredients can be made with whole chili peppers, so I tried over Memorial wkend, wedges! Get that same “ kick ” that you might need to feel relief from your own disease! Tomato sauce but wtih going nightshade free for well over a year, since I the... New recipe: this basil black pepper, prepared either from red or. //Www.Cookeatdelicious.Com/... /how-to-make-chili-powder-recipe.html Yes, that totally still applies when we ’ re talking nightshade free chili, there possible... I need a suitable replacement for them, and can ’ t had chili in because., Suite 211 Irvine CA 92603 powder is a blend of ingredients and then drying.! You 're ok with this collection of 40+ amazing AIP desserts comes from nightshade vegetables & is out uses!